Upgrading to newer releases

Just like any software, Emmett is changing over time, and most of these changes we introduce don't require you to change anything into your application code to profit from a new release.

Sometimes, indeed, there are changes in Emmett source code that do require some changes or there are possibilities for you to improve your own code quality, taking advantage of new features in Emmett.

This section of the documentation reports all the main changes in Emmett from one release to the next and how you can (or you should) update your application's code to have the less painful upgrade experience.

Just as a remind, you can update Emmett using pip:

$ pip install -U emmett

Version 2.2

Emmett 2.2 introduces some minor changes you should be aware of, and some new features you might be interested into.

Minor changes

The following changes are considered minor changes, since they affect only default values, and can be consequentially set to the previous ones:

  • The default SameSite value for sessions cookies is now Lax instead of None
  • The default logging level in serve command is now info in place of warning

Mind that Emmett 2.2 also drops support for previous 2.x deprecations.

New features

With version 2.2 we introduced the following new features:

Version 2.1

Emmett 2.1 introduces some minor breaking changes you should be aware of, and some new features you might been interested into.

Breaking changes

Removed sanitizer from libs

The sanitizer module was a very old module included in Emmett since long time ago. This module was written using the formatter module from standard library, deprecated since Python 3.4, and scheduled for removal in next Python versions.

The only place using this library in Emmett was in html.safe method with the sanitize option activated. Considering the lack of usage from the community, the lack of maintenance of the library and in order to avoid preventions in supporting future Python versions, since Emmett 2.1 this library is not available anymore. In case you need a replacement for the sanitizer, you must implement by yourself.

Moreover, calling html.safe with sanitize option set will warn about the behaviour difference.

Deprecations

Html safe helper

Due to removal of sanitizer library, html.safe is now exactly the same of html.asis. You should switch the usage in your code.

Application run method

The run method in App class is now deprecated. Please rely on develop and serve command from CLI.

Extensions string signals

Prior to Emmett 2.1 extensions signals were implemented as strings. Since 2.1 a new Signals enum is available in extensions module you should use in place of strings.

New features

With version 2.1 we introduced some new features:

Emmett 2.1 also introduces (beta) support for Python 3.9, and type hints on all major interfaces.

Version 2.0

Version 2.0 introduces quite a lot of changes, with the majority of them being breaking. This is due to the drivers of this new major version:

  • The drop of Python 2 support, since it reached End Of Life
  • The switch to ASGI and async code from previous WSGI approach

Since these drivers changes completely the approach used to write applications, the framework name and packages were also changed, in order to avoid developers to inadvertently update between versions and brake all of their code. So, goodbye weppy, welcome Emmett.

If you are really considering porting your application to Emmett from weppy, here is the list of steps.

New package name

Since the package name is changed to emmett, you will need to rewrite all the imports in your application from the old ones:

from weppy import App, request

to the new package:

from emmett import App, request

In general all the previous importables described in documentation are unchanged in Emmett, but we dropped quite a lot of the internals part of the WSGI flow, so in case you imported some peculiar resources and your code raises ImportError, please check the source code for the relevant changes.

Mind also that the weppy command is now the emmett command.

Dropped support for Python 2

Since we dropped the support for Python 2, if your application is written using this version of the Python language, you need to update your code, following one of the available guides out there.

Also mind that the minimum supported Python version in Emmett is 3.7.

Async flow

In Emmett everything regarding the request flow follows ASGI implementation, and, thus, all the relative code should be asynchronous.

Operative speaking, you can keep your routes as standard methods, but whenever you access Request.body_params, you need to change your code from synchronous:

@app.route()
def some_route():
    value = request.body_params.foo

to asynchronous one:

@app.route()
async def some_route():
    value = (await request.body_params).foo

In general, if you need to repeatedly access Request.body_params, might be a good idea to store it in a variable:

@app.route()
async def some_route():
    params = await request.body_params
    foo = params.foo

Mind that, since forms process the request's body, they're awaitable objects too:

@app.route()
async def some_route():
    form = await SomeModel.form()

Async pipeline

Since the pipeline is strictly tied to request flow, all the methods inside Pipe class are now coroutine functions, so while in weppy you wrote:

class MyPipe(Pipe):
    def open(self):
        pass
    def close(self):
        pass
    def pipe(self, next_pipe, **kwargs):
        return next_pipe(**kwargs)
    def on_pipe_success(self):
        pass
    def on_pipe_failure(self):
        pass

in Emmett you need to write:

class MyPipe(Pipe):
    async def open(self):
        pass
    async def close(self):
        pass
    async def pipe(self, next_pipe, **kwargs):
        return await next_pipe(**kwargs)
    async def on_pipe_success(self):
        pass
    async def on_pipe_failure(self):
        pass

Due to the new asynchronous flow, we also introduced a big step-forward in the pipeline flow: while in weppy the open and close pipes' methods were called one after another, in Emmett they get scheduled in the loop at the same time. This means that the order on which these methods get called is no more predictable.

In general, if you need the execution order of your code to be preserved, use the pipe method instead of the open or close ones.

Upload handling

Emmett 2.0 introduces the files sdict attribute in the Request object.

As a direct consequence, your code should be updated to handle uploads from the new attribute, instead of looking for uploads in the body_params one.

An example might be the following:

@app.route()
async def upload():
    files = await request.files
    file = files.upload_param
    await file.save(f"somepath/{file.filename}")

Internationalization files

Since 2.0 Emmett uses Severus as its internationalization engine.

Versions prior to 2.0 implied usage of python files for translations, while in 2.0 supported formats are JSON and YAML.

This means you should convert your Python translations to JSON files, which in the majority of cases it just requires changing the files extensions from .py to .json.

Mind that the format syntax also changed: since Emmett 2.0 the only supported syntax for symbols in strings is the format one. Consequentialy you have to change your translation strings containing old symbols:

{
    "you received %(like)s": "hai ricevuto %(like)s"
}

to the braces format:

{
    "you received {like}": "hai ricevuto {like}"
}

Other changes

Here we list other breaking changes introduced with 2.0

Removal of request combined params

Since the introduction of ASGI and asynchronous code we had to deal with the fact Request.query_params and Request.body_params started to have a different nature. In fact, while the first it's still an object, the second one became an awaitable.

In order to avoid code complexity, and also push the developer to explicitly declare in the application code which request's component gets accessed by the code, we opted to drop the generic combined Request.params attribute. This also gives more consistency to Emmett api's, since Request.params behaviour was not exactly predictable when the same parameter name was present both in query_params and body_params.

This means that you need to change the code where you using Request.params and use the other attributes. If you still want to make a combined version of the two, you can do it manually:

@app.route()
async def some_route():
    params = {**request.query_params, **(await request.body_params)}

Default value for Content-Type header

In Emmett the default value for the response Content-Type header is now text/plain instead of the previous text/html.

All the automatic handling of this header done by the framework itself is still there, so even you're using a service pipe or a template for your route, nothing will change.

The main difference is that you no more need to declare plain text Content-Type if you just return a string in your route. You need to change the Content-Type header just if you return strings containing html in your routes.

Deprecation of run CLI command

Aside from breaking changes, Emmett 2.0 also deprecated the run command, in favour of two different commands for local serving and production serving your application. This means you should use:

  • emmett -a some_app develop in order to run a local server
  • emmett -a some_app serve in order to run a production server

While the run command still works in Emmett 2.0, it will be completely removed in future versions.

New features

Emmett 2.0 also introduces some new features:

  • Websockets support
  • An optional output parameter to route decorator
  • An after_loop signal

Emmett 2.0 also introduces official support for Python 3.8.