Emmett is crafted to fit the needs of many applications, from the smallest to the largest ones. Due to this, your application can be built up from a single Python file and scale to a better organized structure.
In this section, we will cover some good patterns you may follow when your application starts becoming large, or when you just need to organize your code better.
The package pattern will make your application a Python package instead of a module. For instance, let's assume your original application is structured like that:
/myapp myapp.py /static style.css /templates layout.html index.html login.html ...
To convert it to a package application, you should create another folder inside your original myapp one, and rename myapp.py to __init__.py, ending up with something like this:
/myapp /myapp __init__.py /static style.css /templates layout.html index.html login.html ...
– OK, dude. But what did we gain by doing this?
– well, now we can organize the code in multiple modules
With this new structure, we can create a new views.py file inside the package and we can move the routed functions to it. For example, your __init__.py file can look like this:
from emmett import App app = App(__name__) from . import views
and your views.py could look like:
from . import app @app.route("/") async def index(): # some code
Your final structure would be like this:
/myapp /myapp __init__.py views.py /static style.css /templates layout.html index.html login.html ...
– That's nice, but how can I run my application now?
You can use the Emmett command inside the original directory of your application:
$ emmett -a myapp develop
or you can create a run.py file inside your tree:
/myapp run.py /myapp __init__.py views.py /static style.css /templates layout.html index.html login.html ...
which can look like this:
from myapp import app app.run()
A note regarding circular imports:
Every Python developer hates them, and yet we just added some of them: views.py depends on __init__.py while __init__.py imports views.py. In general, this is a bad idea, but it is actually fine here because we are not actually using the views in __init__.py. We are ensuring that the module is imported to expose the functions; also, we are doing that at the bottom of the file.
The MVC (Model-View-Controller) pattern, used widely in web applications, is well structured and becomes handy when you have big applications. Emmett does not provide controllers, but you can implement an MVC pattern using application modules. An MVC structure for an Emmett application can look something like this:
/myapp __init__.py /controllers __init__.py main.py api.py /models __init__.py user.py article.py /templates layout.html index.html login.html ...
As you can see, it's an extension of the package pattern, where we added the two sub-packages controllers and models, each with an empty __init__.py file.
With this structure, your application's __init__.py would look like this:
from emmett import App from emmett.orm import Database app = App(__name__) app.config.url_default_namespace = "main" db = Database() from .models.user import User from .models.article import Post db.define_models(User, Post) from .controllers import main, api
We told Emmett to use the main.py controller as default for urls, so we can just
url('index') instead of
url('main.function') in our application.
The main controller can look like this:
from .. import app @app.route("/") async def index(): # code
and the api.py controller can look like this:
from .. import app api = app.module(__name__, 'api', url_prefix='api') @api.route() async def a(): # code